Licinius, full name Valerius Licinianus Licinius (born 250 AD), Roman Emperor, 307-24, born of peasant family in Dacia. He was raised to the rank of Augustus by Galerius, upon whose death in 311 he and Maximinus Daza became joint sovereigns of the eastern provinces. He defeated Maximinus in 313, but was himself defeated by Constantine in 315 and again in 323. In this latter year he was dethroned and put to death in 324.
Flavius Julius Constans, (c. AD 323-350), Roman Emperor, 337-350, youngest son of Constantine the Great and Fausta. Made Caesar in 333, he became joint emperor with his brothers, Constantine II and Constantius II, in 337, Italy, Africa, and western Illyricum falling to his share. In 340 he defeated Constantine II, who fell in battle near Aquileia, and thus became master of the whole West. Constans visited Britain in 343. He was killed while hunting in Gaul by an emissary of the usurper Magnentius.
Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus, Roman Emperor, AD 238. On the death of the two Gordians in Africa, Balbinus and Pupienus (Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maxims) were elected joint emperors by the Senate. Both were murdered by the praetorian guard later in the same year. They were succeeded by Gordian III.
Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus, (born 205 A.D.), Roman Emperor, 251-53, said to have been treacherously concerned in the defeat and death of Decius, whom he succeeded. After his accession Gallus concluded a dishonourable peace with the Goths, conceding them a fixed annual tribute and allowing them to retain their captives and plunder. He was killed by his own soldiers when on the march to suppress the rebellion of Aemilianus.
Marcus Aurelius Carinus, Roman Emperor, AD 283-84, elder son of Carus who placed him over the western provinces of the Empire. Having won some successes against German tribes he handed over command to his legates and went off to enjoy himself in Rome. On the death of Carus he succeeded to the throne jointly with his brother Numerianus , but in the following year he was assassinated (very soon after his brother) by some of his own officers during a battle against Diocletian on the River Margus, in Moesia.
Heliogabalus, also Elagabalus (AD 204-22), Roman Emperor, 218-22, born at Emesa. His original name was Varius Avitus Bassianus, but he received the name Heliogabalus from the Syro-Phoenician sun-god whose priest he became while still a child. Owing to the intrigues of his grandmother, Julia Maesa, he was proclaimed emperor in 218 and established in that position by the assassination of Macrinus. Heliogabalus appears to have been mad, and devoted his reign almost solely to the promulgation of his own worship.
Galerius, full name Galerius Valerius Maximianus, Roman Emperor, AD 305-11, born of humble parentage in Thrace. He served in the wars of Aurelian and Probus, and eventually married Diocletian’s daughter. In 293 Diocletian conferred upon him the title of Caesar with jurisdiction over Illyricum and the Danubian region.
On the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian in 305, Galerius attained the rank of Augustus. He was defeated by Maxentius in 307, losing Italy and Africa. Galerius’s name is associated with the persecution of Christians under Diocletian.